Thromboembolic events related to the use of birth control (oral contraceptive) drugs are quite common. Estrogen and progesterone hormones in them increase the risk of thromboembolism by 4 times in normal individuals.
These drugs are responsible for increasing the VII, VIII, X, and fibrinogen, antithrombin III, and protein S levels of these drugs.
However, if there is a genetic problem that increases the tendency to clot in people who use it, the risk of thromboembolism increases even more. Among these genetic disorders, factor V Leiden, antithrombin III, prtotein C and S are low.
Factor V leiden mutation increases the tendency to clot in heterozygous individuals by 8 times. However, when these people use oral contraceptive agents, this rate increases 30 times.
In individuals with homozygous factor V leiden mutation, the tendency to clot increases 80 times. If they use contraceptives, this rate increases by 100 times. Therefore, individuals with homozygous factor V leiden mutation are not recommended to use birth control agents.
The tendency to clot in the heterozygous prothrombin gene mutation increases 3-fold. The coagulation of oral anticoagulants in these individuals increases 16-fold.
In people with heterozygous protein C deficits, the tendency to clot increases 7-fold. Those who are homozygous may not be compatible with life. These often develop serious thrombembolic events that threaten life at birth or in the early stages. These fetuses often end with a spontaneous abortion. There is a 6-fold increase in heterozygous protein S deficit.
Thrombotic risk is also linked to the estrogen dose, and the risk increases from the 4th month of treatment. This risk decreases to the level of women who do not use the drug 3 months after discontinuation.
Genetic research is recommended before birth control pills start, as the increase in this clotting tendency is very high and life threatening.